Budoucí čas – be going to

Úvod

Angličtina pro vyjádření budoucností používá dvě základní slovní spojení. První je budoucí čas prostý, který tvoříme pomocí modálního slovesa „will“ a více se o něm můžete dočíst zde: budoucí čas prostý. Tvorba anglické věty pomocí „be going to“ není sice, tak jednoduchá jako je tomu u vyjádření budoucnosti se slovesem „will“, ale o moc složitější to není. Znovu nebude potřeba se učit, žádná nepravidelná slovesa (jako je tomu například u minulého prostého času, kde se musíte naučit nepravidelná slovesa).

Pro tvorbu věty je nutné umět časovat sloveso „be“. Pro zopakování začneme tímto:

1. os. j.č. I am
2. os. j.č. You are
3. os. j.č. He is
3. os. j.č. She is
3. os. j.č. It is
1. os. m.č. We are
2 os. m.č. You are
3. os. m.č. They are

Použití slovního spojení „be going to“

Použití slovního spojení „be going to

  • Oznámení dříve promyšleného rozhodnutí
  • Vyjádření předpovědi, což není stejná předpověď, jako tomu bylo u budoucího času prostého  – v tomto případě je předpověď založena na faktech nebo důkazech

Kladná věta

Kladnou větu s vazbou „be going to“ vytvoříme: Zájmeno + be +going to + infinitiv slovesa. V tabulce naleznete několik příkladů:

1. os. j.č. I am going to think I am going to sit I am going to go I am going to start
2. os. j.č. You are going to think You are going to sit You are going to go You are going to start
3. os. j.č. He is going to think He is going to sit He is going to go He is going to start
3. os. j.č. She is going to think She is going to sit She is going to go She is going to start
3. os. j.č. It is going to think It is going to sit It is going to go It is going to start
1. os. m.č. We are going to think We are going to sit We are going to go We are going to start
2 os. m.č. You are going to think You are going to sit You are going to go You are going to start
3. os. m.č. They are going to  think They are going to sit They are going to go They are going to start

Jak vidíte, tak v tom není žádná záludnost a jediné co se mění je sloveso „be“.

V případě, že se setkáváte s neformální angličtinou, tak Vám jistě neuniklo slovíčko „gonna“. V hovorové angličtině se používá docela často a souvisí to s vaznou „be going to“. V hovorové angličtině se místo celého znění řekne pouze „be gonna“. Tabulka s příklady použití se pak nepatrně změní a vypadá takto:

1. os. j.č. I am gonna think I am gonna sit I am gonna go I am gonna start
2. os. j.č. You are gonna think You are gonna sit You are gonna go You are gonna start
3. os. j.č. He is gonna think He is gonna sit He is gonna go He is gonna start
3. os. j.č. She is gonna think She is gonna sit She is gonna go She is gonna start
3. os. j.č. It is gonna think It is gonna sit It is gonna go It is gonna start
1. os. m.č. We are gonna think We are gonna sit We are gonna go We are gonna start
2 os. m.č. You are gonna think You are gonna sit You are gonna go You are gonna start
3. os. m.č. They are gonna  think They are gonna sit They are gonna go They are gonna start

K použití této zkratky je důležité napsat, že slovo „gonna“ je nespisovné a použít lze pokud se bavíte s kamarády, ale nemělo by se používat například v oficiálním textu.

Záporná věta

Pokud chceme vytvořit zápornou větu pomocí vazby „be going to“, tak pouze přidáme zápor „not“. Z vazby „be going to“ vznikne „be not going to“. V tabulce se můžete podívat na několik příkladů:

1. os. j.č. I am not going to think I am not going to sit I am not going to go I am not going to start
2. os. j.č. You are not going to think You are not going to sit You are not going to go You are not going to start
3. os. j.č. He is not going to think He is not going to sit He is not going to go He is not going to start
3. os. j.č. She is not going to think She is not going to sit She is not going to go She is not going to start
3. os. j.č. It is not going to think It is not going to sit It is not going to go It is not going to start
1. os. m.č. We are not going to think We are not going to sit We are not going to go We are not going to start
2 os. m.č. You are not going to think You are not going to sit You are not going to go You are not going to start
3. os. m.č. They are not going to  think They are not going to sit They are not going to go They are not going to start

Tázací věta

Jako je tomu i u ostatních časů i u vazby „be going to“ dojde u tázací věty ke změně v slovosledu. Věta začíná slovesem „be“, následuje zájmeno a zbytek zůstane stejný jako u kladné věty. V tabulce uvádíme několik příkladů.

1. os. j.č. Am I not going to think? Am I not going to sit? Am I not going to go? Am I not going to start?
2. os. j.č. Are you not going to think? Are you not going to sit? Are you not going to go? Are you not going to start?
3. os. j.č. Is he not going to think? Is he not going to sit? Is he not going to go? Is he not going to start?
3. os. j.č. Is she not going to think? Is she not going to sit? Is she not going to go? Is she not going to start?
3. os. j.č. Is it not going to think? Is it not going to sit? Is it not going to go? Is it not going to start?
1. os. m.č. Are we not going to think? Are we not going to sit? Are we not going to go? Are we not going to start?
2 os. m.č. Are you not going to think? Are you not going to sit? Are you not going to go? Are you not going to start?
3. os. m.č. Are they not going to  think? Are they not going to sit? Are they not going to go? Are they not going to start?

Příklady použití

  • Are you going to ask him? – Máš v plánu ho požádat?
  • She is going to be better student. – Bude lepší studentkou.
  • What are you going to do with this book? – Co máš v plánu dělat s tou knihou?
  • What are you going to do with the money? – Co uděláš s těmi penězi?
  • Whot are you going to buy? – Co budeš kupovat?
  • What are you going to cook? – Co budeš vařit?
  • There is going to be the presentation. – Bude tam prezentace.
  • I am not going to give up smoking. – Nebudu se vzdávat kouření.
  • She is not going to spend so much money. – Nebude utrácet tolik peněz.

What now?

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